Tl;dr: Not that we know of. At least not deployed anywhere outside a lab. Some proposals have been floated, however.
This post was inspired by the recent report by the US Congress Government Accountability Office on ADS-B, which was discussed in many articles around the web, such as this one, for example:
Let’s have a look at the source, these are quotes from the GOA’s actual document, citing some of the work from contributors here at OpenSky: 
A regular question that arises is why you should go through all the trouble of installing an ADS-B sensor when many people have done so already and you can simply use flight tracking websites such as OpenSky to follow almost any aircraft your want. This post is going to list some of the reasons why people are joining the flight tracking community and sharing their own data.
Yes, they do, at least partially, but there are massive differences between countries.
Let’s add some data to this popular question, shall we? This is from our recent paper at the. We collected ADS-B and Mode A/C/S data from over 6000 aircraft operated by militaries all over the world (with a strong focus on Europe/the US) using the . The key plot to answer the question is the following: